Realistic full figure portrait of a young, uniformed Polish soldier seated on a rock created by 23 year old Edward Herzbaum in April 1943 in Habbinaya, Iraq. Habbinaya was an RAF (British Royal Air Force) base and colonial town where Edward often went to swim and see movies. Edward was a soldier in the 2nd Polish Corps, British Army, which was stationed near Habbiniya from March-September 1943 receiving artillery and other military training. Edward, age 19, had left Łódź, Poland, shortly after Nazi Germany occupied the country in September 1939 to stay with family in Soviet controlled Lvov. In June 1940, he was arrested by Soviet security police and exiled to a forced labor camp. Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Edward was released as part an amnesty granted to Polish prisoners. He headed south to join Anders Army, a Polish military unit formed by General Anders per agreement with Stalin. In August 1942, the unit left Soviet territory and became the 2nd Polish Corps, British Army. In February 1944, they deployed to join the 8th British Army in the Italian Campaign. The Corps fought its way north and was honored for heroism in the May 1944 Battle of Monte Cassino. The unit was in Italy on May 7, 1945, when the war ended. Edward learned that his mother had died in the Łódź Ghetto in 1943. He studied architecture in Rome until the British decided to allow Polish Corps veterans to immigrate to England in October 1946. He then served in the Polish Resettlement Corps for two years and completed his degree.
This paper offers an original view about how to generate, spread and perceive information related to the size and potential of the armies in southern Italy in the late Middle Ages. From a wide diplomatic and chronistic documentary collection, this work shows that the conscious manipulation of the information became a useful political tool and that, in fact, the success of the diplomatic missions depended, mainly, on the expertise of the intermediaries to operate successfully in this area. Depending on the context and, above all, on the interlocutor with whom contact was made at any moment, the message and the arguments held by the representatives of each of the opposing powers could vary substantially, although the underlying reality was essentially the same. The holders of political power and their ambassadors and intermediaries were aware that the content of the message depended, to a large extent, on the identity and pretensions of its interlocutor. Thus, there was a clear difference between addressing their subjects, an allied lord, or the enemy.
The film is a point of departure and an example to analyze how the Spanish army, particularly those Africanistas soldiers, used all mass media to their range to create a positive image of their political and military actions in the Protectorate in Morocco. All this was made a reality through different ways: movies (documentaries and fictional films), novels, photos, songs, toys, etc. carrying out a great effort to combine images and words. To get that target, they turned to control of news through censorship, biased information, governmental grants and support of opinion leadership agents, and, in this way, the army stereotypes inside Spanish society were reinforced.
For this study, different sources has been used, such as specialized bibliography about military Africanismo phenomena, mass media (specifically cinema and press), as well as the information provided from files of digital newspapers libraries. In addition, material coming from the movie La Malcasada and other films has been watched for their analysis. 2b1af7f3a8