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This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modifyit under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published bythe Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License,or (at your option) any later version. See COPYING file for details.
At present, BFD is not distributed separately; it is included withpackages that use it.Binutils (BinCD, SrcCD)Binutils includes these programs:addr2line,ar,c++filt,gas,gprof,ld,nm,objcopy,objdump,ranlib,size,strings,&strip.Binutils version 2 uses the BFD library. The GNU assembler, gas,supports the a29k, Alpha, ARM, D10V, H8/300, H8/500,HP-PA, i386, i960, M32R, m68k, m88k, MIPS, Matsushita 10200 and 10300,NS32K, PowerPC, RS/6000, SH, SPARC, Tahoe, Vax, and Z8000 CPUs, andattempts to be compatiblewith many other assemblers for Unix and embedded systems. It can producemixed C and assembly listings, and includes a macro facility similar tothat in some other assemblers.GNU's linker, ld, supports shared libraries on many systems,emits source-linenumbered error messages for multiply-defined symbols and undefinedreferences, and interprets a superset of AT&T's Linker Command Language,which gives control over where segments are placed in memory.objdump can disassemble code for most of the CPUs listed above, andcan display other data (e.g., symbols and relocations) from any file formatread by BFD.Bison (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]Bison is an upwardly compatible replacement for the parser generatoryacc. Texinfo source for the Bison Manualand reference card are included.C Library (glibc) (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]The GNU C library supports ISO C-1989, ISO C/amendment 1-1995, POSIX1003.1-1990, POSIX 1003.1b-1993, POSIX 1003.1c-1995 (when the underlyingsystem permits), & most of the functions in POSIX 1003.2-1992.It is nearly compliant with the extended XPG4.2 specification whichguarantees upward compatibility with 4.4BSD & many System V functions.When used with the GNU Hurd, the C Library performs many functions of theUnix system calls directly. Mike Haertel has written a fast mallocwhich wastes less memory than the old GNU version.GNU stdio lets you define new kinds of streams, just by writing afew C functions. Two methods for handling translated messages helpwriting internationalized programs & the user can adopt theenvironment the program runs in to conform with localconventions. Extended getopt functions are already used toparse options, including long options, in many GNU utilities. Thename lookup functions now are modularized which makes it easier toselect the service which is needed for the specific database & thedocument interface makes it easy to add new services. Texinfo sourcefor the GNU C Library Reference Manual is included(see section GNU Documentation).Previous versions of the GNU C library ran on a large number ofsystems. The architecture-dependent parts of the C library have not beenupdated since development on version 2.0 started, so today itruns out of the box only on GNU/Hurd (all platforms GNU/Hurdalso runs on) & GNU/Linux (ix86, Alpha, m68k, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC;work is in progress for ARM).Other architectures will become available againas soon as somebody does the port.Calc (SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]Calc (written by Dave Gillespie in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advanceddesk calculator & mathematical tool that runs as part of GNU Emacs. Youcan use Calc as a simple four-function calculator, but it has manymore features including: choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry;logarithmic, trigonometric, & financial functions; arbitrary precision;complex numbers; vectors; matrices; dates; times; infinities; sets;algebraic simplification; & differentiation & integration.It outputs to gnuplot, &comes with source for a manual & reference card(see section GNU Documentation).cfengine (SrcCD)cfengine is used to maintain site-wide configuration of aheterogeneous Unix network using a simple high level language. Itsappearance is similar to rdist, but allows many more operationsto be performed automatically.See Mark Burgess, "A Site Configuration Engine", ComputingSystems, Vol. 8, No. 3 (ask email@example.com how toget a copy).Chess (SrcCD)GNU Chess enables you to play a game of chess with a computer insteadof a person.It is useful to practice with when there are significantspare cpu cycles and a real person is unavailable.The program offers a plain terminal interface, one using curses,and a reasonable X Windows interface xboard. Best resultsare obtained by compiling with GCC.Improvements this past year are in the Windows-compatible version,mostly bugfixes.Stuart Cracraft started the GNU mascot back in the mid-1980's.John Stanback (and innumerable contributors) are responsible forGNU's brain development and its fair play.Acknowledgements for the past year's work are due Conor McCarthy.Send bugs to firstname.lastname@example.org &general comments to email@example.com.Visit the author's Web site at` ~cracraft/index.html'.Play GNU Chess on the Web at` -room/chess'.CLISP (SrcCD)CLISP is a Common Lisp implementation by Bruno Haible & Michael Stoll. Itmostly supports the Lisp described by Common LISP: The Language (2ndedition) & the ANSI Common Lisp standard. CLISP includes an interpreter,a byte-compiler, a large subset of CLOS & a foreign language interface.The user interface language (English, German, French, Spanish) can bechosen at run time. An X11 API is available through CLX & Garnet. CLISPneeds only 2 MB of memory & runs on all kinds of systems (Unix, MS-DOS,OS/2, Windows NT, Windows 95, Amiga 500--4000, Acorn RISC PC). See alsoitem "Common Lisp", which describes GCL, a complete Common Lispimplementation with compiler.CLX (SrcCD)CLX is an X Window interface library for GCL.This is separate from the built-in TK interface.Common Lisp (gcl) (SrcCD)GNU Common Lisp (GCL, formerly known as Kyoto Common Lisp) is a compiler& interpreter for Common Lisp.GCL is very portable & extremelyefficient on a wide class of applications, & compares favorably inperformance with commercial Lisps on several large theorem--prover &symbolic algebra systems. GCL supports the CLtL1 specification but ismoving towards the proposed ANSI standard.GCL compiles to C & then uses the native optimizing C compiler (e.g.,GCC). A function with a fixed number of args & one value turns into a Cfunction of the same number of args, returning one value--so GCL ismaximally efficient on such calls. Its conservative garbage collectorgives great freedom to the C compiler to put Lisp values inregisters. It has a source level Lisp debugger for interpretedcode & displays source code in an Emacs window. Its profiler(based on the C profiling tools) counts function calls & the time spent ineach function.There is now a built-in interface to the Tk widget system. It runsin a separate process, so users may monitor progress on Lispcomputations or interact with running computations via a windowinginterface.There is also an Xlib interface via C (xgcl-2). CLX runs with GCL, asdoes PCL (see"PCL" later in this article).GCL version 2.2.2 is released under the GNU Library General PublicLicense.cook (SrcCD)Cook is a tool for constructing files,and maintaining referential integrity between files.It is given a set of files to create,and recipes of how to create and maintain them.In any non-trivial program there will be prerequisitesto performing the actions necessary to creating any file,such as include files.The cook program provides a mechanism to define these.Some features which distinguish Cook includea strong procedural description language,and fingerprints to supplement file modification time stamps.There is also a make2cook utility included to ease transition.cpio (SrcCD)cpio is an archive program with all the features of SVR4cpio, including support for the final POSIX 1003.1 ustarstandard. mt, a program to position magnetic tapes, is included withcpio.CVS (SrcCD)CVS is a version control system (like RCS or SCCS) which allows you tokeep old versions of files (usually source code), keep a log of who,when, and why changes occurred, etc. It handles multiple developers,multiple directories, triggers to enable/log/control various operations,and can work over a wide area network. It does not handle buildmanagement or bug-tracking; these are handled by make and GNATS,respectively.cxref (SrcCD)cxref is a program that willproduce documentation (in LaTeX or HTML)including cross-referencesfrom C program source code.It has been designed to work with ANSI C, incorporating K&R,and most popular GNU extensions.The documentation for the subject programis produced from comments in the codethat are appropriately formatted.The cross referencing comes from the code itselfand requires no extra work.DDD (SrcCD)The Data Display Debugger (DDD) is a common graphical user interfaceto GDB, DBX, and XDB, the popular Unix debuggers.DDD provides a graphical data displaywhere complex data structurescan be explored incrementally and interactively.DDD has been designed to compete withwell-known commercial debuggers;as of release 2.1.1, DDD also compiles and runs withLessTif, a free Motif clone,without loss of functionality.For more details, see the DDD Web page at` -bs.de/softech/ddd/'.DejaGnu (SrcCD)DejaGnu is a framework to test programs with a single front end for alltests. DejaGnu's flexibility & consistency makes it easy to writetests.DejaGnu will also work with remote hosts and embedded systems.DejaGnu comes with expect, which runs scripts to conduct dialogswith programs.Diffutils (SrcCD)GNU diff compares files showing line-by-line changes in severalflexible formats. It is much faster than traditional Unix versions. TheDiffutils package has diff, diff3, sdiff, &cmp.Future plans include supportfor internationalization (e.g., error messages in Chinese) & somenon-Unix PC environments, & a library interface that can be used byother free software.DJGPP Also see "GCC" below (BinCD)DJ Delorie has ported GCC/G++ to i386s running DOS. DJGPP has a 32-biti386 DOS extender with a symbolic debugger, development libraries, & portsof Bison, flex, & Binutils. Full source code is provided.It needs at least 5MB of hard disk space to install & 512Kof RAM to use.It supports SVGA (up to 1024x768),XMS & VDISK memory allocation,himem.sys,VCPI (e.g., QEMM, DESQview, & 386MAX), &DPMI (e.g., Windows 3.x, OS/2, QEMM, & QDPMI).Version 2 was released in Feb. 1996, & needs a DPMIenvironment; a free DPMI server is included.Web at ` ' orFTP from ftp.simtel.net in`/pub/simtelnet/gnu/djgpp/' (or a SimTel mirror site).Ask firstname.lastname@example.org,to join a DJGPP users mailing list.dld (SrcCD)dld is a dynamic linker written by W. Wilson Ho. Linking yourprogram with the dld library allows you to dynamically load objectfiles into the running binary. dld supports a.out object types onthe following platforms: Convex C-Series (BSD), i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Linux),Sequent Symmetry i386 (Dynix 3), Sun-3 (SunOS 3 & 4), Sun-4 (SunOS 4), &VAX (Ultrix).doschk (SrcCD)This program is a utility to help software developers ensurethat their source file names are distinguishable on System V platforms with14-character filenames and on MS-DOS systems with 8+3 character filenames.ed (SrcCD)ed is the standard text editor.It is line-oriented and can be used interactively or in scripts.Elib (SrcCD)Elib is a small library of Emacs Lisp functions, including routines forusing AVL trees and doubly-linked lists.Elisp archive (SrcCD)This is a snapshot of Ohio State's GNU Emacs Lisp FTP Archive. FTP it fromarchive.cis.ohio-state.edu in`/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive'.Emacs [FSFman(s), FSFrc]In 1975, Richard Stallman developed the first Emacs, an extensible,customizable real-time display editor & computing environment. GNU Emacsis his second implementation. It offers true Lisp--smoothly integratedinto the editor--for writing extensions & provides an interface to theX Window System. It runs on Unix, MS-DOS, & Windows NT or 95. In addition toits powerful native command set, Emacs can emulate theeditors vi & EDT (DEC's VMS editor). Emacs has many other features whichmake it a full computing support environment. Source forthe GNU Emacs Manual&a reference cardcomes with the software.Sources for the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference ManualandProgramming in Emacs Lisp: An Introductionare distributed in separate packages. See section GNU Documentation.Emacs 20 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc]The new features in Emacs 20 include support for many languages and manycharacter codes (the MULE facility) and a new convenient customizationfeature. The text-filling commands handle indented and bulleted paragraphsconveniently; there are new help facilities for looking up documentationabout functions and symbols in various languages. A new method offile-locking works even when using NFS. Some dired commands have been mademore systematic.We believe Emacs 20 operates on the same systems as Emacs 19,but we do not have confirmation for all of them.Emacs 19 (SrcCD) [FSFman(s), FSFrc]Emacs 19 works with character-only terminals & with the X Window System(with or without an X toolkit).It also runs on MS-DOS, MS Windows,and with multiple-window support on MS Windows 95/NT.Emacs 19 works on:Acorn RISC (RISCiX);Alliant FX/2800 (BSD);Alpha (OSF/1 or GNU/Linux);Apollo (DomainOS);Bull DPX/2 2nn & 3nn (SysV.3) & sps7 (SysV.2);Clipper;Convex (BSD);Cubix QBx (SysV);Data General Aviion (DGUX);DEC MIPS (Ultrix 4.2, OSF/1, not VMS);Elxsi 6400 (SysV);Gould Power Node & NP1 (4.2 & 4.3BSD);Harris Night Hawk 1200, 3000, 4000 & 5000 (cxux);Harris Night Hawk Power PC (powerunix);Honeywell XPS100 (SysV);HP 9000 series 200, 300, 700, 800 (but not 500) (4.3BSD; HP-UX 7, 8,9; NextStep);Intel i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, 386BSD, AIX, BSDI/386, FreeBSD,Esix, ISC, MS-DOS,NetBSD, SCO3.2v4, Solaris, SysV, Xenix, WindowsNT, Windows95);IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.2) & RT/PC (AIX, BSD);Motorola Delta 147 & 187 (SysV.3, SysV.4, m88kbcs);National Semiconductor 32K (Genix);NeXT (BSD, Mach 2 w/ NeXTStep 3.0);Paragon (OSF/1);Prime EXL (SysV);Pyramid (BSD);Sequent Symmetry (BSD, ptx);Siemens RM400 & RM600 (SysV);SGI Iris 4D (Irix 4.x & 5.x);Sony News/RISC (NewsOS);Stardent i860 (SysV);Sun 3 & 4, SPARC 1, 1+, 2, 10, Classic (SunOS 4.0, 4.1, Solaris 2.0--2.3);Tadpole 68k (SysV);Tektronix XD88 (SysV.3) & 4300 (BSD); &Titan P2 & P3 (SysV).Emacs 18 (SrcCD) [FSFrc]Emacs 18 is several years old. We no longer maintain it, but stilldistribute it for those using platforms which Emacs 19 does not support.enscript (SrcCD)enscript is an upwardly-compatible replacement for the Adobeenscript program. It formats ASCII files (outputting in Postscript)and stores generated output to a file or sends it directly to the printer.es (SrcCD)es is an extensible shell (based on rc) with first-classfunctions, lexical scope, exceptions, and rich return values (i.e.,functions can return values other than just numbers). es'sextensibility comes from the ability to modify and extend the shell'sbuilt-in services, such as path searching and redirection. Like rc,it is great for both interactive use and scripting, particularly sinceits quoting rules are much less baroque than the C and Bourne shells.Exim (SrcCD)Exim is an Internet mail transfer agent, similar in style to Smail 3.It can handle relatively high volume mail systems, header rewriting,control over which hosts/nets may use it as a relay, blocking ofunwanted mail from specified hosts/nets/senders, and multiple localdomains on one mail host ("virtual domains") with several options forthe way these are handled.f2c Also see "Fortran" below & in section Forthcoming GNUs. (SrcCD)f2c converts Fortran-77 source into C or C++, which can becompiled with GCC or G++. Get bug fixes by FTP from sitenetlib.bell-labs.com or by email email@example.com.For a summary, see the file `/netlib/f2c/readme.gz'.ffcall (SrcCD)ffcall is a C library for implementing foreign function calls inembedded interpreters by Bill Triggs and Bruno Haible. It allows Cfunctions with arbitrary argument lists and return types to be calledor emulated (callbacks).Fileutils (SrcCD)The Fileutils are:chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,dd,df,dir,dircolors,du,install,ln,ls,mkdir,mkfifo,mknod,mv,rm,rmdir,sync,touch,&vdir.Findutils (SrcCD)find is frequently used both interactively and in shell scripts tofind files which match certain criteria and perform arbitrary operations onthem. Also included are locate, which scans a database for filenames that match a pattern, and xargs, which applies a command to alist of files.Finger (SrcCD)GNU Finger has more features than other finger programs. For sites withmany hosts, a single host may be designated as the finger serverhost and other hosts at that site configured as finger clients. Theserver host collects information about who is logged in on the clients. Tofinger a user at a GNU Finger site, a query to any of its client hosts getsuseful information. GNU Finger supports many customization features,including user output filters and site-programmable output for specialtarget names.flex (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]flex is a replacement for the lex scanner generator.flex was written by Vern Paxson of the Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory and generates far more efficient scanners than lex does.Sources for the Flex Manual and reference card are included(see section GNU Documentation).Fontutils (SrcCD)The Fontutilsconvert between font formats,create fonts for use with Ghostscript or TeX (starting with a scannedtype image & converting the bitmaps to outlines), etc. It includes:bpltobzr,bzrto,charspace,fontconvert,gsrenderfont,imageto,imgrotate,limn,&xbfe.Fortran (g77) Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (BinCD, SrcCD)GNU Fortran (g77), developed by Craig Burley, is available forpublic beta testing on the Internet. For now, g77 produces codethat is mostly object-compatible with f2c & uses the samerun-time library (libf2c).gawk (SrcCD) [FSFman]gawk is upwardly compatible with the latest POSIX specification ofawk. It also provides several useful extensions not found in otherawk implementations. Texinfo source for the The GNU AwkUser's Guide comes with the software (see section GNU Documentation).gcal (SrcCD)gcal is a program for printing calendars. It displays differentstyled calendar sheets, eternal holiday lists, and fixed date warninglists.GCC (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]Version 2 of the GNU C Compiler supports the languages C, C++, andObjective-C; the sourcefile name suffix or a compiler option selects the language.(Also see "GNAT" later in this article for Ada language supports.)Objective-C support was donated by NeXT. The runtime support needed torun Objective-C programs is now distributed with GCC.(This does not includeany Objective-C classes aside from object, but see "GNUstep" insection Forthcoming GNUs.)G++ seeks to be compliant with the ANSI C++ language standard.GCC is a fairly portable optimizing compiler which performs manyoptimizations.They include:automatic registerallocation, common sub-expression elimination (CSE) (including a certainamount of CSE between basic blocks -- though not all the supported machinedescriptions provide for scheduling or delay slots), invariant code motionfrom loops, induction variable optimizations, constant propagation, copypropagation, delayed popping of function call arguments, tail recursionelimination, integration of inline functions & frame pointer elimination,instruction scheduling, loop unrolling, filling of delay slots, leaf functionoptimization, optimized multiplication by constants, the ability to assignattributes to instructions, & many local optimizations automatically deducedfrom the machine description.GCC can open-code most arithmetic on 64-bit values (type long longint). It supports extended floating point (type long double) onthe 68k; other machines will follow. GCC supports full ANSI C, traditionalC, & GNU C extensions (including: nested functions support, nonlocal gotos,& taking the address of a label).GCC can generate a.out, COFF, ELF, & OSF-Rose files when used with asuitable assembler. It can produce debugging information in theseformats: BSD stabs, COFF, ECOFF, ECOFF with stabs, & DWARF.GCC generates code for many CPUs, including thea29k,Alpha,arc,ARM,AT&T,DSP1610,Clipper,Convex cN,Elxsi,Fujitsu Gmicro,i370,i860,i960,MIL-STD-1750a,MIPS,m32r,mn10200,mn10300,ns32k,PDP-11,Pyramid,ROMP,RS/6000,SH,SPUR,Tahoe,V850,VAX,&we32k.Position-independent code is generated for theClipper,Hitachi H8/300,HP--PA (1.0 & 1.1),i386/i486/Pentium,m68k,m88k,SPARC,&SPARClite.Operating systems supported include:GNU/Hurd,GNU/Linux,ACIS,AIX,AOS,BSD,Clix,Concentrix,Ctix,DG/UX,Dynix,FreeBSD,Genix,HP-UX,Irix,ISC,Luna,LynxOS,Minix,NetBSD,NewsOS,NeXTStep,OS/2,OSF,OSF-Rose,RISCOS,SCO,Solaris 2,SunOS 4,System/370,SysV,Ultrix,Unos,VMS,&Windows/NT.Using the configuration scheme for GCC, building a cross-compiler is aseasy as building a native compiler.Texinfo source for the Using and Porting GNU CC manualis included with GCC (see section GNU Documentation).GDB (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman, FSFrc]GDB, the GNU DeBugger, is a source-level debugger for C,C++, & Fortran. It provides partial support for Modula-2 & Chill.GDB can debug both C & C++, & will work with executablesmade by many different compilers; but, C++ debugging will havesome limitations if you do not use GCC.GDB has a command line user interface, and Emacs has GDB mode as aninterface. An X interface for GDB, called DDD, is described above.Executable files and symbol tables are read via the BFD library, whichallows a single copy of GDB to debug programs with multiple object fileformats (e.g., a.out, COFF, ELF). Other features include a rich commandlanguage, remote debugging over serial lines or TCP/IP, and watchpoints(breakpoints triggered when the value of an expression changes).GDB uses a standard remote interface to a simulator library whichincludes simulators for theARM,Hitachi H8/300,Hitachi SH,&PowerPC.GDB can perform cross-debugging. To say that GDB targets a platformmeans it can perform native or cross-debugging for it. To say that GDB canhost a given platform means that it can be built on it, but cannotnecessarily debug native programs.GDB can:target & host:Amiga 3000 (AmigaOS, Amix, NetBSD),DEC Alpha (OSF/1),DECstation 3100 & 5000 (Ultrix),HP 9000/300 (BSD, HP-UX),HP 9000/700 (HP-UX 9, 10),i386/i486/Pentium (GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, LynxOS, NetBSD, SCO, Windows NT),IBM RS/6000 (AIX 3.x, AIX 4.x, LynxOS),Motorola Delta m88k (System V, CX/UX),Motorola m68k MVME-167 (LynxOS),NCR 3000 (SVR4),PC532 (NetBSD),PowerPC (AIX 4.x, MacOS, Windows NT),SGI (Irix V3, V4, V5),SONY News (NewsOS 3.x),SPARC (LynxOS, NetBSD, Solaris 2.x, & SunOS 4.1),&Sun-3 (SunOS 4.1).target, but not host:AMD 29000,ARM (RDP),Fujitsu SPARClite,Hitachi H8/300,Hitachi SH (CMON, SH3, E7000),HP PA Pro (Winbond, Oki),i960 (MON960, Nindy, VxWorks),m68k/m68332 (CPU32BUG, EST, ROM68K, VxWorks),Matra Sparclet,MIPS (IDT, PMON, VxWorks),PowerPC (PPCBug),&Z8000.host, but not target:HP/Apollo 68k (BSD),IBM RT/PC (AIX),&m68k Apple Macintosh (MacOS).Sources for the manual, Debugging with GDB, and a reference cardare included (see section GNU Documentation).gdbm (SrcCD)gdbm is the GNU replacement for the traditional dbm andndbm libraries. It implements a database using quick lookup byhashing. gdbm does not ordinarily make sparse files (unlike itsUnix and BSD counterparts).Generic NQS (SrcCD)Generic NQS is a network queuing system for spreading batch jobs across anetwork of machines. It is designed to be simple to install on aheterogeneous network of machines, and has optimizations for running on thehigh end, symmetric multiprocessing servers that are currently on themarket. Itis available for many more Unix variants than any other comparable product, andinter-operates with other NQS systems, including Cray's NQE.geomview See ` ' (SrcCD)geomview is an interactive geometry viewing program, which requiresMotif or LessTif and uses X, GL, or OpenGL graphics. It allows multipleindependently controllable objects and cameras.External programs may drive desired aspects of the viewer,e.g. loading changing geometry or controlling motion,while allowing interactive mouse-and-GUI control of everything else.Controllable features includemotion, appearance (wireframe, shading, lighting and material properties),mouse-based selection,snapshoting (PPM or SGI image, Postscript, and RenderMan formats),display in hyperbolic and spherical spaces,and projection from higher dimensions.Includes converters to display Mathematica and Maple 3-D graphics,and limited conversion to/from VRML.gettext Also see section Help the Translation Project (SrcCD)The GNU gettext tool set has everything maintainers need tointernationalize a package's user messages.Once a package has been internationalized, gettext's many tools helptranslators localize messages to their native language and automatehandling the translation files.gforth (SrcCD)gforth is a fast, portable implementation of the ANS Forthlanguage.Ghostscript (SrcCD)Ghostscript is an interpreter for the Postscript and PDF graphics languages.The current version of GNU Ghostscript, 3.33, includesa Postscript Level 2 interpreter and a PDF 1.1interpreter (except for encryption).Significant new features include the ability toconvert PDF to Postscript.Ghostscript executes commands in the Postscript and PDF languages by writingdirectly to a printer, drawing on an X window, or writing to files forprinting later or manipulating with other graphics programs.Ghostscript includes a C-callable graphics library (for client programsthat do not want to deal with the Postscript language).It also runs on MS-DOS, MS Windows, OS/2, OpenVMS, andMac OS (native on both 68K and PowerPC)but please do not ask the FSF staff any questions about this;we do not use these operating systems.Ghostview (SrcCD)Tim Theisen, firstname.lastname@example.org, created Ghostview, apreviewer for multi-page files with an X Window interface. Ghostview &Ghostscript work together; Ghostview creates a viewing window & Ghostscriptdraws in it.The GIMP Also see ` 'The GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program--a replacement for AdobePhotoshop. Although it is still considered to be in the testing stage,many users already regard it as superior to the original.GIT (SrcCD)The GNU Interactive Tools package includes: an extensible filesystem browser, an ASCII/hex file viewer, a process viewer/killer, & otherrelated utilities & shell scripts. It can be used to increase the speed &efficiency of many daily tasks, such as copying & moving files &directories, invoking editors, compressing/uncompressing files, creating &expanding archives, compiling programs, sending mail, etc. It looks nice,has colors (if the standard ANSI color sequences are supported), & isuser-friendly.gmp (SrcCD)GNU mp is a library for arithmetic on arbitrary precision integers,rational numbers, and floating-point numbers. It has a rich set offunctions with a regular interface.A major new release, version 2, came out in Spring '96. Compared to previousversions, it is much faster, contains lots of new functions, & hassupport for arbitrary precision floating-point numbers.GN (SrcCD)GN is a gopher/HTTP server.Gnans (SrcCD)Gnans is a program (and language) for the numerical study ofdeterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. The dynamical systemsmay evolve in continuous or discrete time. Gnans has graphical &command line interfaces.GNAT: The GNU Ada Translator (SrcCD)GNAT, a front end for the entire Ada 95 language, including all special needsannexes, is available via anonymous FTP from cs.nyu.eduand various mirror sites in `/pub/gnat'. SGI, DEC, andSiemens Nixdorf have chosen GNU Ada 95 as the Ada compiler forsome of their systems.GNAT is maintained by Ada Core Technologies. For moreinformation, see ` '.GNATS (SrcCD)GNATS, GNats: A Tracking System, is a bug-tracking system.It is based uponthe paradigm of a central site or organization which receives problemreports and negotiates their resolution by electronic mail. Although it hasbeen used primarily as a software bug-tracking system so far, it issufficiently generalized that it could be used for handling systemadministration issues, project management, or any number of otherapplications.GnuGo (SrcCD)GnuGo plays the game of Go. It is not yet very sophisticated.GNUMATH (gnussl) (SrcCD)GNUMATH is a library (gnussl) that simplifies scientificprogramming in C & C++. Its focus is on problems that can be solved by astraight-forward application of numerical linear algebra. It also handlesplotting. It is in beta release; it is expected to grow moreversatile & offer a wider scope in time.gnuplot (SrcCD)gnuplot is an interactive program for plotting mathematicalexpressions and data. It plots both curves (2 dimensions) & surfaces (3dimensions). It was neither written nor named for the GNUProject; the name is a coincidence. Various GNU programs usegnuplot.gnuserv (SrcCD)gnuserv is an enhanced version of Emacs' emacsclientprogram. It lets the user direct a running Emacs to edit files orevaluate arbitrary Emacs Lisp constructs from another process.gpc (SrcCD)The GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is part ofthe GNU compiler family, GNU CC or GCC.It combines a Pascal front endwith the proven GNU compiler backendfor code generation and optimization.Unlike utilities such as p2c,this is a true compiler, not just a converter.Version 2.0 of GPC corresponds to GCC version 188.8.131.52.The purpose of the GNU Pascal project isto produce a compiler which:combines the clarity of Pascal with powerful tools suitable forreal-life programming,supports both the Pascal standard and the Extended Pascal standardas defined by ISO, ANSI and IEEE. (ISO 7185:1990, ISO/IEC10206:1991, ANSI/IEEE 770X3.160-1989)supports other Pascal standards (UCSD Pascal, Borland Pascal,Pascal-SC) in so far as this serves the goal of clarity andusability,can generate code for and run on any computer for which the GNU CCompiler can generate code and run on.The current release (2.0) implements Standard Pascal (ISO 7185, level 0)and a large subset of Extended Pascal (ISO 10206) and Borland Pascal. Theupcoming release 2.1 features better conformance to the various Pascalstandards, and of course bug fixes.GNU Pascal sources are on ` -pascal/'(release) or` -essen.de/pub/gnu-pascal/'(development versions).grep (SrcCD)This package has GNU grep, egrep, and fgrep, which findlines that match entered patterns. They are much faster than thetraditional Unix versions.Groff (SrcCD)Groff is a document formatting system based on a device-independent versionof troff, &includes:eqn,nroff,pic,refer,tbl,troff;theman,ms,&mm macros;& drivers for Postscript, TeX dvi format, the LaserJet 4 seriesof printers, and typewriter-like devices. Groff's mm macro packageis almost compatible with the DWB mm macros with several extensions.Also included is a modified version of the Berkeley me macros and anenhanced version of the X11 xditview previewer. Written in C++,these programs can be compiled with GNU C++ Version 2.7.2 or later.Groff users are encouraged to contribute enhancements. Most neededare complete Texinfo documentation, a grap emulation (a picpreprocessor for typesetting graphs), a page-makeup postprocessor similarto pm (see Computing Systems, Vol. 2, No. 2; email@example.com how to get a copy), and an ASCIIoutput class for pic to integrate pic withTexinfo. Questions and bug reports from users who have read thedocumentation provided with Groff can be sent firstname.lastname@example.org (SrcCD)guavac is a free compiler for the Java language.GTKGTK is the GNU GUI toolkit; it can be used from C and other compiledprogramming languages, and also from GUILE.GUILE Also see section GNUs Flashes (SrcCD)GUILE isGNU's Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extension,an interpreter for the Scheme programming language,packaged as a librarythat you can link into your programsto make them extensible.gzip (BinCD, SrcCD)gzip can expand LZW-compressed files but uses another, unpatentedalgorithm for compression which generally produces better results. It alsoexpands files compressed with System V's pack program.hello (SrcCD)The GNU hello program produces a familiar, friendly greeting. Itallows non-programmers to use a classic computer science tool which wouldotherwise be unavailable to them. Because it is protected by the GNUGeneral Public License, users are free to share and change it.hello is also a good example of a program that meets the GNU codingstandards. Like any truly useful program, hello contains a built-inmail reader.hp2xx (SrcCD)GNU hp2xx reads HP-GL files, decomposes all drawing commands intoelementary vectors, and converts them into a variety of vector and rasteroutput formats. It is also an HP-GL previewer. Currently supported vectorformats include encapsulated Postscript, Uniplex RGIP, Metafont, variousspecial TeX-related formats, and simplified HP-GL (line drawing only)for imports. Raster formats supported include IMG, PBM, PCX, & HP-PCL(including Deskjet & DJ5xxC support). Previewers work under X11 (Unix),OS/2 (PM & full screen), & MS-DOS (SVGA, VGA, & HGC).HylaFAX Also see ` ' (SrcCD)HylaFAX (once named FlexFAX) is a facsimile system for Unix systems. Itsupports sending, receiving, & polled retrieval of facsimile, as well astransparent shared data use of the modem.Hyperbole (SrcCD)Hyperbole, written by Bob Weiner in Emacs Lisp,is an open, efficient, programmable information management,autonumbered outliner, &hypertext system, intended for everyday work on any platformEmacs runs on.ID Utils (SrcCD)ID Utils is a package of simple, fast, high-capacity,language-independent tools that index program identifiers, literalnumbers, or words of human-readable text. Queries can be issued fromthe command-line, or from within Emacs, serving as an augmented tagsfacility.ILISP (SrcCD)ILISP is a powerful GNU Emacs interface to many dialects of Lisp, includingGCL, KCL, AKCL, ECL, IBCL, Lucid, Allegro, Harlequin and CMUCL. SomeScheme implementations are supported also.indent (SrcCD)GNU indent formats C source code into the GNU, BSD, K&R, oryour own special indentation style.GNU indent is more robust & provides more functionality than othersuch programs, including handling C++ comments.It runs on Unix, Windows, VMS, ATARI and other systems.The next version which formats C++ source code will soon be released.Inetutils (SrcCD)Inetutils has common networking utilities & servers.Version 1.3a is more portable than previous releases:Inetutils now works on GNU/Linux and SunOS/Solaris systems,although it still requires a systemwith some degree of BSD compatibility.This release also has many security holes plugged.Ispell (SrcCD)Ispell is an interactive spell checker that suggests "near misses" toreplace unrecognized words. System & user-maintaineddictionaries for multiple languages can be used. Standalone & Emacsinterfaces are available.JACAL Not available from the FSF except by FTPJACAL is a symbolic mathematics system for the manipulation &simplification of algebraic expressions & equations.The FSF is not distributing JACAL on any physical media. You can FTP it,or visit the Web site` -swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/JACAL.html'.jargon (SrcCD)The jargon file is the online version of The New Hacker's Dictionary.Karma (SrcCD)Karma is a signal and image processing library and visualization toolkitthat provides interprocesscommunications, authentication, graphics display, and user interface to andmanipulation of the Karma network data structure. Several foreign dataformats are also supported. Karma comes packaged with a number ofgeneric visualization tools and some astronomy-specific tools.less (SrcCD)less is a display paginator similar to more and pg, butwith various features (such as the ability to scroll backwards) that mostpagers lack.LessTif (SrcCD)LessTif is a free clone of Motif.libg++ (Old C++ Library) (BinCD, SrcCD)The package was once main GNU C++ support library. More recently, itcontained the libstc++ library which provided the support for theforthcoming C++ standard, but libstc++ is now a separate package(see below).libg++ now contains only the old routines, supported for backwardscompatibility; new programs should avoid using it.libstdc++ (BinCD, SrcCD)This library implements the library facilities defined by the forthcomingISO C++ standard; it was formerly part of libg++. This includesstrings, iostream, and various container classes. All of this istemplatized.The package also contains the older libg++ libraryfor backward compatibility,but new programs should avoid using it.Libtool (SrcCD)GNU libtool is a generic library support scriptwhich manages the complexity ofbuilding and linking against shared libraries.Libtool allows source code package maintainersto easily add shared library supportwithout breaking static-only platform compatibility.Libtool supports building static libraries on all known platforms.Shared library support has been implemented forseveral platforms.Lout (SrcCD)Lout is a text formatter, approximately as powerful as TeXbut with a cleaner programming language.Lynx Also see ` ' (SrcCD)Lynx is a World Wide Web browser for those running"cursor-addressable" (text-only) terminals or terminal emulators. Lynxhas been ported to text-based PC platforms such as DOS.m4 (SrcCD)GNU m4 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.It is mostly SVR4 compatible, although it has some extensions (e.g.,handling more than 9 positional parameters to macros). m4 also hasbuilt-in functions for including files, running shell commands, doingarithmetic, etc.make (BinCD, SrcCD) [FSFman]GNU make supports POSIX 1003.2 and has all but a few obscurefeatures of the BSD and System V versions of make, and runs onMS-DOS, AmigaDOS, VMS, & Windows NT or 95, as well as allUnix-compatible systems. GNU extensions include long options, parallelcompilation, flexible implicit pattern rules, conditional execution, &powerful text manipulation functions. Source for the MakeManual comes with the program (see section GNU Documentation).MandelSpawn (SrcCD)A parallel Mandelbrot generation program for the X Window System.Maxima (SrcCD)Maxima is a Common Lisp implementation of MIT's Macsyma system forcomputer based algebra.MCSim (SrcCD)MCSim v4.2.0 is a general purpose modeling and simulation program.It provides numerical solution to sets of nonlinear (or linear)algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations.It also performs standard or Markov chain Monte Carlo simulationsfor Bayesian statistical inference.Mesa (SrcCD)Mesa is a 3-D graphics library with an API which is very similar to thatof OpenGL.Meta-HTML (SrcCD) is a programming language specifically designed for workingwithin the World Wide Web environment. It works by interpretingand executing an extended version of standard HTML on the server.With mSQL, mySQL, and other database access, statefull sessions andmore, it provides the most commonly wanted Web functionality as built-inprimitives, so you don't have to write them.Midnight Commander (mc) (SrcCD)The Midnight Commander is a user friendly & colorful file manager& shell, useful to novice & guru alike. It has a built-in virtual filesystem that manipulates files inside tar files or fileson remote machines using the FTP protocol. This mechanism is extendablewith external programs, and is the basis for the GNOME file manager. Miscellaneous Files Distribution (SrcCD)The GNU Miscellaneous Files are non-crucial filesthat are common on various systems, including wordlists, airport codes, ZIP codes, etc.mkisofs (SrcCD)mkisofs is a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO 9660 file system.It takes a snapshot of a directory tree, and makes a binaryimage which corresponds to an ISO 9660 file system when written to ablock device.It can also generate the System Use Sharing Protocolrecords of the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol(used to further describe the files in an ISO 9660 file system to a Unixhost; it provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid,permissions, and device nodes).The mkisofs program is often used with cdwrite.The cdwrite programworks by taking the image that mkisofs generates anddriving a cdwriter drive to actually burn the disk.cdwrite works underGNU/Linux, and supports popular cdwriter drives.Older versions of cdwritewere included with older versions of mkisofs;sunsite.unc.edu has the latest version:`/pub/Linux/utils/disk-management/cdwrite-2.0.tar.gz'.mtools (SrcCD)mtools is a collection of utilitiesto access MS-DOS disks from Unix without mounting them.It supports Windows 95 style long file names, FAT32,OS/2 Xdf disks, 2m disks (store up to 1992k on a high density 3 1/2 disk),and ZIP/JAZ disks.MULE (SrcCD)MULE is a MULtilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs. MULE text buffers cancontain a mix of characters from many languages including:Japanese,Chinese,Korean,Vietnamese,Thai,modern European languages (including Greek & Russian),Arabic,& Hebrew.MULE also provides input methods for all of them.See section GNU & Other Free Software in Japan,for more information about MULE.Emacs 20 includes most of the MULE features except for right-to-leftwriting, interface to external Japanese/Chinese conversion server programs,and terminal faces. These missing features will be included in Emacs soon.mutt Also see ` ~me/mutt' (SrcCD)Mutt is a small but very powerful screen-oriented mail client, with supportfor MIME, message threading, color terms, and configurable key binding.Nana (SrcCD)Nana is a debugging-support library; it provides improved support forassertion checking and logging, for programs written in C, C++ and Ada.ncurses (SrcCD)ncurses implements the Unix curses API fordeveloping screen-based programs that are terminal independent. Itis not merely an emulation of old (BSD) curses/termcap, but is fullycompatible with SVR4 curses/terminfo. It includes color, multiple-highlight,& xterm mouse-event support.NetHack (SrcCD)NetHack is a display-oriented adventure game similar to Rogue.ASCII, X11, and various PC based GUI displays are supported.NetHack runs on GNU/Linux, Amiga, Atari, BeBox, Mac, MS Windows, MS-DOS,OS/2, Unix, VMS, and Windows NT.The current release of NetHack is 3.2.2.Bug reports concerning NetHack should be sent email@example.com.NIH Class Library (SrcCD)The NIH Class Library is a set of C++ classes (similar toSmalltalk-80's) written in C++ by Keith Gorlen of the National Institutesof Health (NIH).nvi (SrcCD)nvi is an implementation of theex/vi Unix editor. It has all the functionality ofthe original ex/vi, except open mode & the lispedit option. Enhancements include multiple buffers, command-line editing &path completion, integrated Perl5 & Tcl scripting languages, Cscopesupport & tag stacks, 8-bit data support, infinite file/line lengths,infinite undo, language catalogs, incremental search, extended regularexpressions, and security fixes.It uses Autoconf for configuration and runs on any Unix-likesystem.Oaklisp (SrcCD)Oaklisp is a fast, portable, object-oriented Scheme with first class types.Objective-C Library (SrcCD)Our Objective-C Class Library(gstep-base.tar.gz, libgnustep-base)has general-purpose, non-graphical Objective-Cobjects written by Andrew McCallum & others. It includescollection classes for maintaining groups of objects, I/O streams, codersfor formatting objects & C types to streams, ports for network packettransmission, distributed objects (remote object messaging), stringclasses, invocations, notifications, event loops, timers, exceptions,pseudo-random number generators,& more. It hasthe base classes for the GNUstep project; all but a few of them havealready been written. Send queries & bugs firstname.lastname@example.org.See "GNUstep" in section Forthcoming GNUs.OBST (SrcCD)OBST is a persistent object management system with bindings to C++.OBST supports incremental loading of methods. Its graphical toolsrequire the X Window System.It features a hands-on tutorial including sample programs. It compileswith G++, and should install easily on most Unix platforms.Octave (SrcCD)Octave does arithmetic for real and complex scalars and matrices,solves sets of nonlinear algebraic equations,integrates systems of ordinary differential & differential-algebraicequations,and integrates functions over finite & infinite intervals.Two- & three-dimensional plotting is available using gnuplot.Version 2.0.9 includes support for dynamically linked functions,user-defined data types, many new functions, & a completely revised manual.Octave works on most GNU and Unix systems, OS/2, and Windows NT/95.Oleo Also see section Forthcoming GNUs (SrcCD)Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensivespreadsheets). It supports the X Window System and character-basedterminals, and can output Embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets.Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable.Oleo supports multiple variable-width fonts when used under the X WindowSystem or outputting to Postscript devices.p2c (SrcCD)p2c is Dave Gillespie's Pascal-to-C translator. It inputs manydialects (HP, ISO, Turbo, VAX, etc.) & generates readable,maintainable, portable C.patch (SrcCD)patch applies diff's output to a set of original files togenerate the modified versions. Recent versions of GNU patch canupdate files' timestamps as well as their contents.PCL (SrcCD)PCL is a free implementation of a large subset of CLOS, the Common LispObject System. It runs under both GCL and CLISP, mentioned above.perl (SrcCD)Larry Wall's perl combines the features & capabilities of C,sed, awk, & sh, and provides interfaces to the Unixsystem calls & many C library routines.PIPS (SrcCD)PIPS is the Parallel Information Processing System. It includes programsto convert data between the portable map image format (PNM) and the networkcommon data format (NetCDF), and to perform several operations on NetCDFfiles in parallel.plotutils (SrcCD)The GNU plotutils (plotting utilities) package includeslibplot,a subroutine library for producing2-D device-independent vector graphics,and graph,a sample application for plotting 2-D scientific datathat is built on top of libplot.Supported devices includeX Window System displays,Postscript devices,HP-GL/2 and HP-GL printers and plotters,and Tektronix emulators.xfig output format,which can be edited with the free graphics editor xfig,is also supported.The Postscript output format includes directiveswhich allow it to be edited with the idraw graphics editor.Included with graph are spline, a program that usessplines in tension to interpolate data,and ode,an application that will numerically integratea system of ordinary differential equations.PRCS (SrcCD)PRCS, the Project Revision Control System,is a version control programwith purpose similar to that of CVS.It was designed with simplicity in mind.Like CVS, PRCS uses RCS to accomplish this task,but this is inconsequential to the user,as RCS is completely hidden beneath a layer of abstraction.ptx (SrcCD)GNU ptx is our version of the traditional permuted indexgenerator. It handles multiple input files at once, has TeXcompatible output, & outputs readable KWIC (KeyWords In Context)indexes without using nroff.Plans are to merge this package into textutils.It does not yet handle input files that do not fit in memory all at once.rc (SrcCD)rc is a shell that features a C-like syntax (much more so thancsh) and far cleaner quoting rules than the C or Bourne shells.It's intended to be used interactively, but is also great for writingscripts. It inspired the shell es.RCS (SrcCD)RCS, the Revision Control System, is used for version control & managementof software projects. Used with GNU diff, RCS can handle binaryfiles (8-bit data, executables, object files, etc).RCS now conforms to GNU configuration standards & to POSIX 1003.1b-1993.Also see the CVS item above.readline (BinCD, SrcCD)Brian Fox wrote the readline library one weekend in 1987,so that the FSF would have a clean Emacs-like line editing facilitythat could be used across multiple programs.After installing it in Bash,he went on to test the reusability of the codeby adding it to GDB,and then later, to the GNU FTP client.The library supplies many entry points--the simplest interfacegives any program the ability to store a history of input lines,and gives the end user a completeEmacs-like (or vi-like) editing capability over the input,simply by replacing calls to gets with calls to readline.recode (SrcCD)GNU recode converts files between character sets and usages. Whenexact transliterations are not possible, it may delete the offendingcharacters or fall back on approximations. This program recognizes oroutputs nearly 150 different character sets and is able to transliteratefiles between almost any pair. Most RFC 1345 character sets are supported.regex (SrcCD)The GNU regular expression library supports POSIX.2, except forinternationalization features. It is included in many GNU programs whichdo regular expression matching & is available separately. An alternateregular expression package, rx, is faster than regex in manycases; we were planning to replace regex with rx, butit is not certain this will happen.Roxen (SrcCD)Roxen is a modularized, object-oriented, non-forking World Wide Webserver with high performance and throughput,and capabilities for on the fly image generation(` ').It was formerly named Spinner, but was renamed for trademark reasons.rsync (SrcCD)rsync is a replacement for rcp that has many more features.rsync uses the "rsync algorithm",which provides a very fast methodfor synchronizing large remote files,sending only the differences across the link.It does not require both versions of a fileto be local in order to compute the differences.A technical report describing the rsync algorithmis included with the package.rx (SrcCD)Tom Lord has written rx, a regular expression library which isgenerally faster and more correct than the older GNU regex library.SAOimage (SrcCD)SAOimage is an X-based astronomical image viewer. It reads array dataimages, which may be in specific formats, and displays them with apseudocolor colormap. There is full interactive control of thecolormap, panning and zooming, graphical annotation,and cursor tracking in pixel and sky coordinates,among other features.screen (SrcCD)screen is a terminal multiplexer that runs several separate"screens" (ttys) on a single character-based terminal. Each virtualterminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ISO 2022 and ISO 6429 (ECMA 48,ANSI X3.64) functions, including color. Arbitrary keyboard inputtranslation is also supported. screen sessions can be detached andresumed later on a different terminal type. Output in detached sessions issaved for later viewing.sed (SrcCD)sed is a stream-oriented version of ed. It comes with therx library. Sharutils (SrcCD)shar makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparingthem for transmission by electronic mail services; unshar helpsunpack these shell archives after reception. uuencode anduudecode are POSIX compliant implementations of a pair of programswhich transform files into a format that can be safely transmitted acrossa 7-bit ASCII link.Shellutils (SrcCD)The Shellutils are:basename,chroot,date,dirname,echo,env,expr,factor,false,groups,hostname,id,logname,nice,nohup,pathchk,printenv,printf,pwd,seq,sleep,stty,su,tee,test,true,tty,uname,uptime,users,who,whoami,&yes.Shogi (SrcCD)Shogi is a Japanese game similar to Chess; a major difference is thatcaptured pieces can be returned into play.GNU Shogi is a variant of GNU Chess; it implements the same features& similar heuristics. As a new feature, sequences ofpartial board patterns can be introduced to help the program playtoward specific opening patterns. It has both character and X displayinterfaces.It is primarily supported by Matthias Mutz on behalf of the FSF.SIPP (SrcCD)SIPP is a library for photorealistically rendering 3D scenes. Scenes canbe illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources; they are built upof object hierarchies, with arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces.Surfaces can be rendered with either Phong, Gouraud, or flat shading. Thelibrary supports programmable shaders and texture mapping.Smail (SrcCD)Smail is a mail transport system, designed as a compatibledrop-in replacement for sendmail. It uses a much simplerconfiguration format than sendmail and is designed to be setupwith minimal effort. Current beta versions of smail which haveenhanced security and anti-spam features are available from` '. Smalltalk (SrcCD)GNU Smalltalk is an interpreted object-oriented programming language systemwritten in highly portable C. It has been ported to MS-DOS, many Unixes, &other OSes.Features include a binary image save capability,the ability to call user-written C code with parameters, anEmacs editing mode, a version of the X protocol invocable from Smalltalk,optional byte-code compilation and/or execution tracing, &automatically loaded per-user initialization files. It implements all ofthe classes & protocol in the book "Smalltalk-80: TheLanguage", except for the graphic user interface (GUI) related classes.SNePS (SrcCD)SNePS is the Semantic Network Processing System. It is animplementation of a fully intensional theory of propositionalknowledge representation and reasoning. SNePS runs underCLISP or GCL.spell (SrcCD)GNU spell is a clone of standard Unix spell,implemented as a wrapper to ispell.stow (SrcCD)stow manages the installation of multiple software packages,keeping them separate while making them appear (via symbolic links)to be installed in the same place.For example, Emacs can be installed in `/usr/local/stow/emacs'and Perl in `/usr/local/stow/perl',permitting each to be administered separately,while with stow they will both appearto be installed in `/usr/local'.Superopt (SrcCD)Superopt is a function sequence generator that uses an exhaustivegenerate-and-test approach to find the shortest instruction sequence for agiven function. You provide a function as input, a CPU to generate codefor, and how many instructions you want. Its use in GCC isdescribed in the ACM SIGPLAN PLDI'92 Proceedings.It supports: SPARC, m68k, m68020, m88k, IBM POWER and PowerPC, AMD 29k,Intel x86 & 960, Pyramid, DEC Alpha, Hitachi SH, & HP--PA.Swarm (SrcCD)Swarm is a software package for multi-agent simulation of complex systemsbeing developed at The Santa Fe Institute.Swarm is intended to be a useful toolfor researchers in a variety of disciplines,especially artificial life.The basic architecture of Swarm is the simulationof collections of concurrently interacting agents:with this architecture,a large variety of agent based modelscan be implemented.tar (BinCD, SrcCD)GNU tar includes multi-volume support, the ability to archive sparsefiles, compression/decompression, remote archives, andspecial features that allow tar to be used for incremental and fullbackups. GNU tar uses an early draft of the POSIX 1003.1ustar format which is different from the final version. Thiswill be corrected in the future.Termcap Library (SrcCD) [FSFman]The GNU Termcap library is a drop-in replacement for `libtermcap.a' onany system. It does not place an arbitrary limit on the size of Termcapentries, unlike most other Termcap libraries. Included is source for theTermcap Manual in Texinfo format (see section GNU Documentation).Termutils (SrcCD)The Termutils package contains programs for controlling terminals.tput is a portable way for shell scripts to use special terminalcapabilities. tabs is a program to set hardware terminal tabsettings.TeX (SrcCD)TeX is a document formatter that is used, among other things,by the FSF for all its printed documentation.You will need it if you want to make printed manuals.See ` '.The Source Code CD-ROM contains a minimal TeX collection,sufficient to process Texinfo files. We hope to providea full TeX distribution in the future.Texinfo (SrcCD) [FSFman]Texinfo is a set of utilities(makeinfo,info,install-info,texi2dvi,texindex,&texinfmt.el)which generate printed manuals, plain ASCII text, & online hypertextdocumentation (called "Info"), & can read online Info documents; Infofiles can also be read in Emacs. Texinfo mode for Emacs enables easyediting & updating of Texinfo files. Source for the Texinfo Manualis included (see section GNU Documentation).Textutils (SrcCD)The Textutils programs manipulate textual data. They include:cat,cksum,comm,csplit,cut,expand,fmt,fold,head,join,md5sum,nl,od,paste,pr,sort,split,sum,tac,tail,tr,unexpand,uniq,andwc.TIFF library (SrcCD)The TIFF library, libtiff, is a library for manipulating TaggedImage File Format files, a commonly used bitmap graphics format.Tile Forth (SrcCD)Tile Forth is a 32-bit implementation of the Forth--83 standard writtenin C, allowing it to be easily ported to new systems& extended with any C-function (graphics, windowing, etc).Many documented Forth libraries are available, e.g. top-down parsing,multi-threads, & object-oriented programming.time (SrcCD)time reports (usually from a shell) the user, system, & real timeused by a process. On some systems it also reports memory usage, pagefaults, etc.ucblogo (SrcCD)ucblogo implements the classic teaching language, Logo.unitsGNU `units' converts between different units of measurement,such as miles/gallon to km/liter.(It can only handle multiplicative scale changes,so it cannot convert Celsius to Fahrenheitthough it could convert temperature differences between those temperatures scales.)UUCP (SrcCD)GNU's UUCP system (written by Ian Lance Taylor) supports the f,g (all window & packet sizes),v,G,t,e,Zmodem,&two new bidirectional (i & j) protocols.With a BSD sockets library, it can make TCP connections. With TLIlibraries, it can make TLI connections. Source is included for a manual(not yet published by the FSF).vera (SrcCD)VERA (Virtual Entity of Relevant Acronyms)is a document listing thousands of acronymsof the computer field. Updated tri-monthly.viewfax (SrcCD)Viewfax is a tool for displaying fax files on an X display.It can display raw, digifax or tiff/f files,such as those received by HylaFAX.VRweb (SrcCD)VRweb is a browser for 3D worlds and scenes modeled in VRML (the VirtualReality Modeling Language), developed by Graz University of Technology,in Austria.Emacs/W3 (SrcCD)Emacs/W3 (written by William Perry in Emacs Lisp) is an extensible, advancedWorld Wide Web browser that runs as part of Emacs.It includes support for frames, tables, stylesheets, and much more.See ` '.wdiff (SrcCD)wdiff is a front-end to GNU diff. It compares two files,finding the words deleted or added to the first to make the second. It hasmany output formats and works well with terminals and pagers. wdiffis very useful when two texts differ only by a few words and paragraphshave been refilled.Plans are to merge this package into diffutils.Wget (SrcCD)Wget non-interactively retrieves files from the Web using HTTP& FTP. It is suitable for use in shell scripts.windows32api (SrcCD)windows32 is a set of header files & import libraries thatcan be used by GNU tools for compiling & linking programs to be runon Windows NT/95.WN (SrcCD)WN is a World Wide Web server designed to be secure and flexible. Itoffers many different capabilities in pre-parsing files before passingthem to the client, and has a very different design from Apache and theNCSA server.X11 (SrcCD)We distribute Version 11, Release 6.3 of the X Window System with the latestpatches & bug fixes. X11 includes all of the core software, documentation,contributed clients, libraries, & toolkits,games, etc.While supplies last, we will distribute X11R5 on the November 1993 andearlier Source Code CD-ROMs.xboard (SrcCD)xboard is a graphical chessboard for X Windows. Itcan serve as a user interface to the Crafty or GNU chessprograms, the Internet Chess Servers, Email correspondencechess, or games saved in Portable Game Notation.xgrabsc (SrcCD)xgrabsc is a screen capture program similar to xwd butwith a graphical user interface, more ways of selecting thepart of the screen to capture, & different types of output: Postscript,color Postscript, xwd, bitmap, pixmap, & puzzle.xinfo (SrcCD)xinfo is an X-windows program for reading Info files. It usesa special widget, which is available for use in other programs.xmcd Also see ` ~cddb/xmcd/' (SrcCD)xmcd is an X11-based CD player utility andcda is a command-line driven, non-graphical CD audio player.xmcd is developed to use theOSF/Motif API (version 1.1 and later)and can also be used with LessTif, the free Motif clone.In its evolution over the past few years,xmcd has established itself asthe premier CD player application for the X window systemwith an attractive, easy-to-use user interface.It is feature-rich and runs on virtuallyall of the popular Unix and OpenVMS platforms.It also supports the widest array of CD-ROM and CD-R devices,including some older SCSI-1 drivesthat do not work with other CD player applications.The remote CD database query feature fully utilizes the Internetand taps on a vast repository ofCD artists/titles, track titles and other information.Multi-disc changers are also supported.Like many other CD player applications,xmcd supports a CD databaseof disc and track titles and other information.A distinguishing feature of xmcd isthe ability to connect to a remote CD database serverto query this information.Many public Internet CD database servershave been established around the world for this purpose,and xmcd also allows the user tosubmit new CD entries to the master database.xshogi (SrcCD)xshogi is a graphical Shogi (Japanese Chess) board for the XWindow System. It can serve as a user interface to GNU Shogi, as areferee for games between two humans, or as a client for the InternetShogi Server.Ygl (SrcCD)Ygl emulates a subset of SGI's GL (Graphics Language) library underX11 on most platforms with an ANSI C compiler (including GCC). It has mosttwo-dimensional graphics routines, the queue device & query routines,double buffering, RGB mode with dithering, Fortran bindings, etc.zlibc (SrcCD)Zlibc is an uncompressing C library for GNU/Linux, Solaris, SunOS systems.It is a preloadable shared object that allows executables touncompress the datafiles that they need on the fly.No kernel patch, no recompilation of these executables andno recompilation of the libraries is needed;the package overrides the open function(and other system call functions) in the shared library. Program/Package Cross ReferenceHere is a list of the package each GNU program or library is in.You can FTP the current list from the file `/pub/gnu/ProgramIndex'on a GNU FTP host (see section How to Get GNU Software). 2b1af7f3a8